Zygomycosis – What it is, Symptoms and Treatments of this disease that many are unaware of. Zygomycosis , also called mucormycosis, is a rare fungal infection whose etiological agent is fungi of the zygomycetes class, Mucorales and Entomophthorales order. Within the latter, there are fungi of the Entomophthoraceae and Basidiobolaceae families that are of medical importance (entomophthoromycosis caused by Canidiabolus coronatus and C. incongruus; basidiobolomycosis caused by Basidiobolus ranarum).
Normally, these fungi inhabit the soil and dry leaves found on the ground, and the infection results from the inhalation of spores associated with the dust, with subsequent implantation of these agents in the nasal mucosa. It is known that in vitro, this fungus is capable of synthesizing several enzymes, such as elastases, esterases, collagenases and lipases.
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Causes of Zygomycosis: Zygomycosis is an infection caused by Mucorales molds.
- The infection is caused by inhaling spores produced by the mold.
- The infection causes pain, fever, and sometimes coughing, which can destroy structures on the face.
- Doctors diagnose the infection by identifying the fungus in samples of infected tissue.
Most people are given high doses of amphotericin B intravenously, and surgery is done to remove infected and dead tissue. Zygomycosis is caused by inhaling spores produced by Mucorales molds . These molds are common in the environment and include many common bread molds. People probably always breathe in the spores of these molds. However, most of these molds do not cause infection .
This infection most commonly affects the nose, sinuses, eyes, and brain , a form called rhinocerebral zygomycosis . This serious and potentially fatal infection generally affects people whose immune system is weakened by an illness such as malnutrition or uncontrolled diabetes. Another place where the infection is common is in the lung. Infections of the skin and digestive system rarely occur.
Symptoms of Zygomycosis: Symptoms of Zygomycosis include pain, fever, and an infection of the eye socket (orbital cellulitis) with a protrusion of the infected eye (proptosis). The drainage of pus is carried out through the nose. The roof of the mouth (palate), the facial bones that surround the eye socket, the sinuses, or the division between the nasal passages (septa) can be destroyed by the infection . Infectionin the brain can cause seizures, partial paralysis and coma.
- Zygomycosis in the lungs causes fever, cough, and sometimes difficulty breathing.
- The fungus tends to invade arteries. As a result, blood clots form and the tissue dies. The fungus grows wildly in the dead tissue, which turns black. The surrounding area may bleed.
Treatments for Zygomycosis: Most people with Zygomycosis are treated with high doses of amphotericin B intravenously. People with uncontrolled diabetes are given insulin to lower blood sugar levels.
Infected tissue and especially dead tissue must be removed through surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment of this infection is important to avoid death or extensive surgery, which often causes disfigurement.
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Note: Zygomycosis is very serious. Even when much of the infected and dead tissue is removed and antifungal drugs are used properly, many people with this infection die.