Prostate Cancer – What it is, Symptoms, Treatments and Causes that many are unaware of. In addition, Prostate Cancer is the type of gland located below the bladder and that surrounds the urethra, the channel that connects the bladder to the external orifice of the penis. In addition, the more advanced a tumor is, the more mutations occur, conferring greater aggressiveness.
These cells multiply faster than normal prostate cells. These cells multiply faster than normal prostate cells . Neoplastic cells have the ability to invade tissues and spread to distant organs, either via the lymphatic (involving the lymph nodes) or blood (mainly bones).
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Prostate Cancer is a tumor that affects mature men and can be cured when it is still localized. If identified at an advanced stage, the patient’s risk of survival is much lower. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential in controlling and curing the disease. So, check out now Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Treatments and Causes:
Risk Factors: Family history is of great importance – a patient whose father or uncle had prostate cancer is twice as likely to develop the disease as the general population.
The risk is even greater for men who have a sibling with the disease. If the patient is younger than 65 years old and has more than one relative affected by the disease, the risk increases from 6 to 11 times. Patients with first-degree relatives with prostate cancer diagnosed under age 55 may have hereditary prostate cancer (less than 2% of cases).
Other risk factors involve diet (diet high in fat and red meat, low in vegetables, vegetables and fruits), physical inactivity and obesity (these patients have more aggressive prostate cancer ), estrogen levels (the higher the rate, the higher the risk), ethnicity (blacks have a higher incidence, while Asians have a lower incidence), region where you live (Americans have more Prostate Cancer than Asians), level of environmental pollution, as well as contact with rubber derivatives and substances such as iron, chromium , lead and cadmium.
Currently, the value of PSA has been valued to predict the chance of prostate cancer in the patient’s future. Patients with PSA less than 1 ng/ml have a less than 5% chance of having prostate cancer in a 10-year follow-up.
Main Symptoms: In the initial phase, most patients do not present relevant symptoms, but they may present symptoms related to another common disease that accompanies the aging of men, benign prostatic hyperplasia,with mild to moderate voiding symptoms of voiding difficulty. No abnormality can be seen by touch or a hardened lump in theprostate.
In advanced disease, more intense obstructive voiding symptoms may occur, caused by local tumor growth with compression of the prostatic urethra . In some cases, the symptoms are due to the disease that is spreading through the body, mainly to the bones or its locoregional growth, causing obstruction of the kidneys by the invasion of the ureters.
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: In men over 50 years of age, a digital rectal exam and a blood protein (PSA) measurement can be performed, through a blood test, to find out if there is prostate cancer without symptoms. . Digital rectal examination and PSA measurement do not tell if the individual has cancer , they only suggest the need or not to perform other tests.
The digital rectal examination identifies problems other than prostate cancer and is more sensitive in men with some type of symptoms. PSA tends to increase with advancing age. About 75-80% of men with an increased PSA do not have prostate cancer .
About 20% of men with symptomatic prostate cancer have a normal PSA. Depending on the region of the prostate, the cancer may also not be palpable by digital rectal examination. The best strategy is to perform both tests, as they are complementary.
Patients considered to be at high risk (with relatives with prostate cancer ) should have their first examination at age 40. Currently, according to the findings of this investigation, the patient is advised to perform their exams annually or even biannually, or every 3 years, depending on the touch and age of the patient under clinical investigation. The American Society of Oncology recommends testing every 2 years for men with PSA <2.5 ng/ml and annually for men whose PSA level is = 2.5 ng/ml. Today, it is accepted to apply for PSA for:
- Men over age 50 who are at average risk of prostate cancer (PCa) and have a life expectancy of at least 10 more years.
- Men Age 45 Us at High Risk of Developing PCa: African Americans and men who have a 1st-degree relative (father, brother, or child) diagnosed with PCa at an early age (less than 65 years of age).
- Men age 40 at highest risk (those with more than one 1st-degree relative who had PCa at an early age).
Prevention: Some doctors recommend performing a digital rectal examination and PSA measurement for all men over 50 years of age. For those with a family history of prostate cancer (father or brother) before age 60, experts recommend having these tests starting at age 40.
However, it is worth remembering that only the doctor can advise on the risks and benefits of performing these tests. There is no evidence that periodic digital rectal examination and PSA testing in men who do not have symptoms reduces prostate cancer mortality.
Maintaining a healthy diet, not smoking, being physically active and visiting your doctor regularly all contribute to improving your overall health and can help prevent this cancer . There is no proven prostate cancer prevention strategy . But you can reduce your risk of prostate cancer by making healthy choices, like exercising and eating a healthy diet.
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Treatment: Surgeries for the standard treatment of Prostate Cancer is radical prostatectomy, which consists of removal of the prostate , seminal vesicles and bilateral iliac-obturator lymphadenectomy.
- Extended lymphadenectomy is indicated for patients considered to be at intermediate and high risk.
- Radical prostatectomy aims to cure the patient with Prostate Cancer and further remove the cancer completely.
- Radical prostatectomy can be performed perineal, retropubic, or robot-assisted. All can have good results as long as the proper operative technique is applied.