Epispadias – What is it, Symptoms and Treatments of this condition. In addition , Epispadias is a birth defect, a deformation of the urethra, which is the opening through which urine passes out of the body.
In epispadias, the urethra has a misshapen opening at the end that affects how urine is passed out of the body. It is a rare defect, but it can be problematic if not treated properly. In females, Epispadias is very rare but can be serious if it occurs.
What and Epispadias: Epispadias sis a congenital malformation of the external genitals, when the external opening of the urethra opens above its normal position, for example in boys – on the upper surface of the body of the penis or pubic bone. Much more rarely Epispadias common in girls, and one girl shown in 565,000 compared to 1 case per 100,000 boys.
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What are the Causes? While the exact cause of Epispadias is not clearly understood, it is believed to be influenced by a variety of factors. Being a birth defect, it is believed that the cause of Epispadias may be related to the embryonic development of the fetus during the first few months of pregnancy.
Deformation is likely possible during the fifth week of gestation and will be associated with inadequate pubic bone development. However, more research is needed on the causes of Epispadias .
Symptoms: To understand the types and treatment of Epispadias , it is essential to know the symptoms of Epispadias . The main symptom of Epispadias is the shape of the urethra , which becomes abnormal and becomes much shorter and wider. In Epispadias , the opening of the urethra is at the top of the urethra or on the sides of it.
In the case of females, the symptoms are different as the labia and the clitoris become abnormally shaped and it is between these two that the urethra opens. In some cases, the urethra can also open in the belly. This becomes more problematic because the person has trouble controlling urination.
What are the Types? Based on the opening of the urethra or meatus, types of Epispadias in males include
Epispadias of the penis: The opening of the urethra is on the shaft of the penis .
Penopubic Epispadias: In this type of epispadias, the location of the urethra is close to the pubic bone. As the pubic bones do not fuse together properly at the front, the bladder does not have any specific closure.
Instead of any kind of closure, the bladder becomes horseshoe-shaped, which causes leakage of urine. Stress or increased abdominal pressure can lead to a leakage of urine or urinary incontinence incontinence.
Glandular Epispadias: In this type of epispadias, the opening of the urethra is found at the head of the penis , which makes it look normal. Men in this case can hold the urine and can manage it. This type of deformity can be treated medically and surgically, if appropriate.
Treatment: Treatment largely depends on your type. The location of the urethra or meatus in epispadias helps to decide the severity of the disease. When the meatus location is close to the penis , it can cause problems with holding urine for a long period of time.
Some cases of Epispadias , which affect moderately, may need to be treated surgically. Also, as the condition is closely related to the genitals, which are the most sensitive part of the body, surgical treatment needs to be planned carefully.
The purpose of the surgery is that the child’s fertility needs to be ensured so that it is easier for the child to lead a normal life even after the surgery. There are different types of surgeries for Epispadias treatments which are as follows:
Mitchell Technique: In this treatment, the penis is pulled completely out of place and then rejoined after correction. The purpose of this procedure is to maintain the optimal functioning of the urethra .
In the case of girls, the treatment of Epispadias is simpler. It is best treated when detected at birth as surgery at an early age is performed very easily compared to growing up years.
Therefore, it is better to have the child diagnosed so that he or she can lead a normal life later on. It is important that any change in the urethra seen after the child is born or during the first few years or any change in the urination pattern should be evaluated by the doctor.