Down Syndrome – What is it, Causes and Symptoms

Down Syndrome – What it is, Causes and Symptoms that many are still unaware of. In addition,  Down Syndrome  is caused by the presence of three chromosomes 21 in all or most of an individual’s cells, this occurs at the time of conception of a child. People with Down syndrome , or trisomy 21, have 47 chromosomes in their cells instead of 46 like most of the population.

Children, young people and adults with Down Syndrome may have some similar characteristics and be subject to a higher incidence of diseases , but they have different and unique personalities and characteristics.

It is important to clarify that parental behavior does not cause Down Syndrome . There is nothing they could have done differently to prevent Down Syndrome . In addition, Down Syndrome is not a disease, but a condition of the person associated with some issues that parents should be aware of since the child’s birth.

Causes of Down Syndrome: Down  syndrome occurs due to a genetic mutation that occurs during pregnancy. Down Syndrome  is not hereditary, that is, it does not pass from father to child and the emergence of Down Syndrome  may be associated with the age of the parents, but mainly of the mother, with a greater risk in women who became pregnant over 35 years old. deity.

Symptoms of  Down Syndrome:  People with Down Syndrome have very particular signs. Some of them are:

  • Back of head slightly flattened;
  • The mouth is usually larger and takes longer to close;
  • The hair is smooth and fine, and in some cases there may be total alopecia, that is, the absence of hair;
  • Face with a flatter contour;
  • Facial bones poorly developed;
  • Small nose and deep nasal bone;
  • Eyes slanted to the side and up;
  • Upper eyelid shifted to the inside;
  • Narrow and even slanted eyelids;
  • Small ears with the upper edge more folded than usual;
  • Tongue projected out;
  • Narrow good sky;
  • Small jaws;
  • Late eruption of teeth;
  • Wide and thick neck;
  • protruding abdomen;
  • Sunken or protruding pectoral bone, which causes an odd appearance in the chest area;
  • Small hands and feet with short fingers;
  • Single pleat on palms;
  • Undeveloped genitalia. Boys are sterile and girls ovulate irregularly.

Not all people with Down Syndrome  exhibit these signs. Depending on the type of trisomy 21, the manifestations can be more or less intense. However, in general, these are the phenotypic characteristics of Down Syndrome .

How to Avoid Down Syndrome: Down  Syndrome is a genetic accident and therefore cannot be avoided, however, getting pregnant before the age of 35 can be one of the ways to reduce the risk of having a baby with Down Syndrome . of Down .

Boys with Down Syndrome are sterile and therefore cannot have children, but girls can get pregnant normally and have a high chance of having children with Down Syndrome .

Possible Complications of Down Syndrome:

  • Obstruction of the airways during sleep;
  • Trauma by compression of the spinal cord;
  • Endocarditis;
  • eye problems;
  • Frequent ear infections and increased risk of other infections;
  • Hearing loss;
  • Heart problems;
  • Gastrointestinal obstruction;
  • Weakness of the bones of the upper part of the neck.

Useful links: 

Treatment For Down Syndrome:  The truth is that there is no single treatment that can reverse Down Syndrome . Actions are taken to reduce the effects of congenital problems and measures to include children are carried out. There is no specific classification for Down Syndrome , but there are variations in the mental and motor development of each patient and this interferes with the inclusion measures.

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