Diabetes – Causes, Types, Symptoms and Treatments!

Diabetes – Causes, Types, Symptoms and Treatments that are important for everyone to know.  In addition, the disease that affects more and more people can cause serious health consequences if left untreated. There are about 250 million diabetics in the world according to the International Diabetes Federation , 4% of them (10 million) are in Brazil.

The problem, which is considered a metabolic crisis of multiple origin, is due to the lack of insulin in the body (type 1) or the inability of the body to use the hormone in the correct way (type 2), causing an increase in glucose (sugar) levels. ) in the blood.

Type Diabetes  is considered an autoimmune disease, that is, the person’s own defense system attacks the insulin-producing cells, destroying them. In the case of type 2, insulin resistance is created, due to factors such as physical inactivity and obesity .

Insulin is responsible for promoting the reduction of glucose in the blood by allowing sugar to enter the cells, to be used as energy. When there is a lack of this hormone or resistance to it, diabetes is diagnosed .

Diagnosis:  To detect the disease, it is necessary to measure blood glucose in people with the characteristic complaints and signs of diabetes . Normal fasting blood glucose values ​​(at least 8 hours) should be between 70mg/dl and 99mg/dl and less than 140mg/dl 2 hours after meals.

A fasting blood glucose from 10mg/dl to 125mg/dl is considered abnormal, requiring other tests to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes . Already a value equal to or greater than 126mg/dl is detected Diabetes .

Treatment:  Unfortunately, the disease still has no cure. However, there are treatments that allow you to maintain a long and quality life. Basically, the main precautions should be:

-balanced diet:  People with diabetes should avoid simple carbohydrates (which make blood glucose rise quickly), such as sweets, pasta and bread. The ideal is to opt for whole foods, which release glucose slowly into the blood, avoiding blood glucose spikes. Carbohydrates  should make up 50% to 60% of the total calories eaten by diabetics .

Physical Exercises:  This is an essential factor in the life of a diabetic and anyone who values ​​quality of life, as it helps to keep the disease under control, in addition to preventing weight gain. Both aerobic and strength exercises have been shown to be effective in controlling and improving diabetes .

In the case of Type 1 Diabetes , physical exercise optimizes the use of blood glucose and reduces the number of injections throughout the day, which improves the quality of life of these individuals. In the case of Type 2 Diabetes  (it does not depend on insulin), the main objective of the activity is to improve the sensitivity of the receptor to the hormone.

Both types of training have shown a significant effect three to five times a week, with restriction in the case of hypoglycemia, as exercise can further lower blood sugar levels.

On the other hand, if diabetes is uncontrolled, with very high blood glucose, exercise can cause the release of counter-regulatory hormones, further increasing blood glucose. Therefore, before taking a risk in any modality, it is best to talk to your doctor in order to find the best options.

Insulin Replacement:  In the case of  Type 1 Diabetes , there is a need for daily doses of insulin, which will be prescribed by the endocrinologist. For type 2 treatment, oral hypoglycemic agents may be indicated or, in some cases, food control and physical activity are sufficient to control the problem.

Don’t Have Addictions:  Drinking alcoholic beverages is not prohibited, but it should be in a moderate way and accompanied by some food, as isolated consumption can cause a drop in blood glucose. It is important to be careful with beers and sweet or carb -based drinks , as they can increase blood sugar.

Cigarette and diabetes is also a dangerous combination, as their association can increase the risk of a heart attack by up to five times – this is because the substances present in cigarettes help to create accumulations of fat in the arteries, blocking circulation.

Complications:  Keeping the disease under control is important to prevent the possible consequences of the disease, which are:

Diabetic Retinopathy: Lesions appear in the retina of the eye, which can cause small bleeding and, as a consequence, loss of vision – an irreversible process.

Arteriosclerosis: High blood glucose levels can cause hardening and thickening of the artery wall, which contributes – and a lot – to a heart attack.

Diabetic nephropathy: changes in the blood vessels of the kidneys that cause a loss of protein in the urine. The organs can reduce their function or even come to a complete stop.

Diabetic Neuropathy: the nerves are unable to send and receive messages from the brain, causing symptoms such as tingling, numbness or burning in the legs, feet and hands, local pain and imbalance, digestive disorders and sexual impotence .

Diabetic Foot: This occurs when a bruised or infected area on the feet develops an ulcer (sores). Any injury to the feet of someone who is diabetic must be treated quickly to avoid complications that can lead to amputation of the limb.

Myocardial infarction and stroke: happens when large blood vessels are affected, leading to blockage of vital organs such as the heart and brain. Keeping blood sugar under control helps fight cholesterol , hypertension and other ailments that can affect the heart.

The Main Symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes:

  • Weakness;
  • The urge to urinate several times;
  • Fatigue;
  • frequent hunger;
  • constant thirst;
  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • nervousness;
  • Weight loss;
  • Mood swings.

Type 2 diabetes:

  • Difficulty in wound healing;
  • Frequent infections;
  • Tingling in the feet and the appearance of boils;
  • Visual change (blurred vision).

The main types of diabetes are 1 and 2, however, there are others: gestational, LADA and MODY (and their variations) are some examples.

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