Breast Cyst – What is it, Risks, Symptoms and Treatments

Breast Cyst – Risks, Symptoms and Treatments can appear simultaneously or separately and can be symptoms of initial or already advanced .  In addition,  breast cysts are benign and asymptomatic lesions that usually appear after 35 years of age. Breast cyst, also called breast cyst , breast cyst or breast cyst , is the most common benign lesion of the breast , and can be found in women of any age, although its peak incidence is between 35 and 50 years old. deity.

A woman may have one or multiple breast cysts, which in turn may affect only one or both breasts . Cysts are round or oval lesions , which are usually described by patients as a grape  or a small balloon filled with water that can be palpated in the breast .

In this article we will explain what a breast cyst is , how it arises, what are its symptoms and what are your treatment options. We will also explain the risk of a breast cyst turning into breast cancer. So, check out  Breast Cyst – What it is, Risks, Symptoms and Treatments.

What is Breast Cyst:  In medicine, we call a cyst any liquid or semi-liquid collection that is surrounded by a membrane, forming a kind of bag or bag. The breast cyst, therefore, is a small liquid collection, which is located inside the breast . To understand how the breast cyst forms, it is necessary to know a little about the anatomy of the breasts .

In females, each of the breasts contains about 15 to 25 mammary lobes , which contain the glands responsible for producing milk. These breast lobes are distributed like the petals of a flower and are surrounded by a supporting tissue composed of fat  and fibrous tissue. Each mammary lobe drains into a channel, called the lacticiferous duct, which extends to the nipple.

Breast cysts usually arise from an obstruction in the terminal lobular ducts, which are the portion of the lactiferous duct closest to the lobes. Obstruction of the duct causes fluid accumulation and cyst  formation . Contrary to what common sense might suggest, breast cysts are not made up of milk.

Its liquid  is a mixture of water and mineral salts  and its color is yellow-brown, produced by the cyst wall itself . The probable cause of cysts is linked to hormonal fluctuations throughout the menstrual cycle and the patient’s life, but the exact mechanism that leads to their formation is still unclear.

Breast Cyst Classification :

  • Microcysts  : These are very small breast cysts that can be detected during imaging tests such as mammography  or ultrasound, but are too small for us to be able to palpate them. They are usually cysts smaller than 0.4 cm in diameter.
  • Macrocysts : These are breast cysts large enough to be palpated and can grow to about 5 centimeters in diameter. You
  • Macrocysts can compress adjacent breast tissue and cause pain or discomfort.

Symptoms of  Breast Cyst: Breast  cyst can appear at any age, but it is most common between 35 and 50 years old. In this age group, it is present in about 40% of women. Like most benign small and asymptomatic, this estimate is likely to be underestimated. After menopause , cysts become less common.

Microcysts are too small to cause any symptoms and often go unnoticed, being accidentally identified in an imaging test. Cysts with diameters greater than 0.5 cm can be identified by palpation of the breast , having the appearance of a nodule with a smooth, soft, rounded surface and well-defined edges.

The texture of the cyst is variable, often being described as similar to that of a grape  or a water balloon. In some cases, however, the cyst may look like a hard mass. Pain on palpation of the cyst is also common, especially if it is large (greater than 2.0 cm). In some women, cysts may spontaneously hurt.

The patient may also have a cluster of multiple small cysts (usually 0.3 cm), which on palpation may look like an ill-defined mass.

Therefore, palpation of the cyst (s) alone is not capable of 100% reliably distinguishing between a benign cyst , a cluster of cysts , a benign solid mass or a malignant tumor. For this, imaging tests, such as ultrasound  or mammography , are necessary .

Breast cyst diagnosis :

Ultrasonography is usually the imaging  test used to identify breast cysts , as this method easily allows the identification of fluid-filled structures (ie, cysts ). On ultrasound , cysts may have the following characteristics:

Simple Mammary Cyst : A simple cyst is well circumscribed, has thin walls and purely liquid content inside.

Complex Cyst: Complex cysts aredefined as masses with thick walls, with septa inside and a heterogeneous appearance, with mixed characteristics of liquid and solid lesion. Complex cyst is uncommon, only 5% of cysts identified on ultrasound have this feature.

When the cyst is large enough to be palpated, the physician may perform a fine needle aspiration of the lesion in the office before ordering any imaging tests. In cases of simple cysts , aspiration  of its liquid content makes the lesion disappear. In these cases, no other measure is necessary.

If the aspiration detects bloody content or the cyst does not disappear completely, the aspirated material should be sent for analysis and an imaging exam should be performed to better characterize the lesion. If the aspiration is dry, suggesting a predominantly solid lesion, an imaging test, such as mammography  or MRI , should be the next step.

Risks of Breast Cyst: Breast  cysts are by definition benign lesions. Asimple breast cyst is not cancer  , it has no risk of becoming cancer ,  nor does it increase the patient’s risk of having cancer  in the future. Malignant tumors  are usually solid lesions. Eventually, some tumors  may present as a complex cyst , but this is uncommon.

In most cases, the complex cyst is composed only of pus, clots, and cellular debris. Large cysts do not become cancer  , but their presence can make the detection of malignant lesions more difficult with imaging tests.

Breast Cyst  Treatment : Breast cysts that are simple and asymptomatic do not require any type of treatment. If the cyst is palpable and the patient is unsure of the lesion , fine needle aspiration can be performed. Recurrence of the cyst , however, is common, a fact that must be clarified to the patient.

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Painful cysts or large cysts that interfere with the visualization of breast tissue on imaging tests can also be drained with a fine needle.

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