Bipolar Disorder – What it is, Symptoms and Drug Treatments. Additionally, Bipolar Disorder , formerly called manic depression , is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows ( depression ).
When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (less extreme than mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or exceptionally irritable. These mood swings can affect sleep, energy, activity, judgment, behavior, and the ability to think clearly.
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Episodes of mood swings may occur rarely or multiple times a year. While most people experience some emotional symptoms between episodes, some may not experience any at all.
Although Bipolar Disorder is a vital condition, you can manage your mood swings and other symptoms by following a treatment plan. In most cases, Bipolar Disorder is treated with medication and psychological counseling (psychotherapy).
Causes of Bipolar Disorder: The exact cause of Bipolar Disorder is unknown, but several factors may be involved, such as:
- Biological Differences: People with Bipolar Disorder appear to have physical changes to their brains . The meaning of these changes is still unclear, but it may eventually help to identify the causes.
- Genetics: Bipolar Disorder is more common in people with a first-degree relative, such as a sibling or parent, with the condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that could be involved in causing Bipolar Disorder .
Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder: There are several types of bipolar and related disorders. They can include mania or hypomania and depression . Symptoms can cause unpredictable changes in mood and behavior, resulting in significant difficulties and difficulties in life.
- Bipolar I Disorder: You have had at least one manic episode that may precede or follow hypomanic episodes or major depression . In some cases, mania can trigger a break with reality (psychosis).
- Bipolar II Disorder: You have had at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but you have never had a manic episode.
- Cyclothymic Disorder: You have had at least two years – or a year in children and adolescents – of many periods of hypomanic symptoms and periods of depressive symptoms (although less severe than major depression ).
- Other types: These include, for example, bipolar and related disorders induced by certain drugs or alcohol or due to a medical condition such as Cushing’s disease, multiple sclerosis, or stroke .
Bipolar II Disorder is not a milder form of Bipolar I Disorder, but a separate diagnosis. While the manic episodes of Bipolar I Disorder can be severe and dangerous, individuals with Bipolar II Disorder may be depressed for longer periods, which can cause significant impairment.
Although Bipolar Disorder can occur at any age, it is usually diagnosed in the teens or early 20s. Symptoms can vary from person to person, and symptoms can vary over time.
Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: Treatment for Bipolar Disorder usually lasts for a long time, even years. It is usually done by several specialists from various areas – such as psychologists, psychiatrists and neurologists.
The medical team first tries to find out what are the possible triggers of the mood change . Medical or emotional problems that influence treatment may also be investigated. The most commonly used medications to treat the symptoms of Bipolar Disorder are:
- Lithium carbonate
NOTE: Only a doctor can tell you which drug is most suitable for you, as well as the correct dosage and duration of treatment. Always follow your doctor’s instructions to the letter and never self-medicate. Do not stop using the drug without consulting a doctor first, and if you take it more than once or in much larger amounts than prescribed, follow the instructions on the package insert.