Agranulocytosis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments!

Agranulocytosis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments and  few know this disease. In addition,  Agranulocytosis  It is an acute blood disease characterized by the absence or reduction of granular leukocytes.These can be neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils and are defense cells in the human body. Therefore, when there is a reduction in these cells, the individual is more vulnerable to a series of conditions, especially to various infections that can end up resulting in worrying complications.

What is Agranulocytosis: Agranulocytosis is  a rare condition where your bone marrow doesn’t make enough of a certain type of white blood cells, in most cases neutrophils. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that your body needs to fight infections . They make up the largest percentage of white blood cells in your body.

What are the symptoms: Sometimes it can be asymptomatic in the absence of an infection. Early symptoms of agranulocytosis may include:

  • sudden fever
  • goosebumps
  • sore throat
  • Weakness in your limbs
  • Mouth and gum pain
  • Mouth ulcers
  • bleeding gums
  • fast heart rate
  • rapid breathing
  • low blood pressure
  • skin abscesses

What are the types and causes of agranulocytosis: There are two types of Agranulocytosis . The first type is congenital, which means you were born with the condition. The second type is acquired. You can get Agranulocytosis from certain medications or medical procedures.

In both forms of Agranulocytosis , you have a dangerously low neutrophil count. Healthy levels in adults generally fall in the range of 1,500 to 8,000 neutrophils per microliter (mcL) of blood. In Agranulocytosis , you have less than 500 per mcL.

In Acquired Agranulocytosis , something causes your bone marrow not to produce neutrophils, or to produce neutrophils that do not become fully mature, functioning cells. It is also possible that something looks like neutrophils die very quickly. In Congenital Agranulocytosis , you inherit a genetic abnormality that causes it.

Main causes:

  • certain medications
  • Exposure to chemicals such as the insecticide DDT
  • Diseases that affect the bone marrow, such as cancer
  • serious infections
  • radiation exposure
  • Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Nutritional deficiencies, including low levels of vitamin B – 12 and folate
  • chemotherapy

Treatment Options: If Agranulocytosis is due to an underlying disease, that condition will be treated first.

If a medication needed for another condition causes agranulocytosis , your doctor may prescribe a substitute treatment. If you are taking several different medications, you may need to stop taking them.

This could be the only way to find the drug that is causing the problem. Your doctor will likely prescribe antibiotics or antifungal medication to treat any infection.

A treatment called colony stimulating factor may be used for some people, such as those who acquired agranulocytosis from chemotherapy. This treatment encourages the bone marrow to produce more neutrophils. It can be used along with your chemotherapy cycles. Although not widely used, a neutrophil transfusion may be the best temporary treatment for some people.

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